The photo composition of the frame is the compilation of a single whole from separate parts according to the plot idea. The purpose of such a construction is to create, taking into account the foundations of the composition, a harmonious, complete image that will interest the viewer, will not leave him indifferent.
Photo Composition Rules
The main task of composition is to create a plot and convey its meaning to the viewer. The result depends on the location of the main units, on the correct construction, color and texture characteristics, lighting, angles, geometric conditions and other factors.
There is no such single composition rule that will ensure the success of a photo, since everything is interconnected, balanced, and the approach must necessarily be creative.
3 Points to Compose Your Shot Correctly
- find something unusual, interesting;
- competently create a frame – arrange all the elements in the places necessary in this composition;
- wait for the situation when a connection is created between all participants in the plot. If the composition is built correctly, then we already get artistic photography.
The composition of the photo is formed in such a way as to indicate the most important part in it. This is achieved by positioning the main subject in the picture and using the background correctly, the height of the apparatus, focus, etc. The photographer makes the audience view the main character of the composition first of all.
#1. Selecting the Main Object
The composition consists of one main and several secondary parts. The main thing must be highlighted so that your idea is clear. This can be done in various ways:
- dimensions – to show it as the largest part of the plot (for more details, see the “Scale of the plan” section);
- creating a fuzzy, blurry background;
- the play of color – to highlight the main thing with brighter tones;
- using different lighting – the background is darker; the main object is lighter;
- uniqueness – the main thing should be sharply different from other parts of the composition;
- and, of course, to remove from the frame everything unnecessary that interferes with the viewer’s perception of the plot idea.
#2. The Scale of The Plan
There are 4 types.
General plan – a large fragment of the territory is covered. The faces are small, the details are not visible.
Mid-shot – the surrounding persons or objects are an important part of the plot; details are visible at the central object.
Close-up – here the main object can be clearly seen, there is no environment.
Extra close-up – focuses on details that expressively characterize the main idea (for example, on the eyes, lips).
#3. The Rule of Thirds and The Golden Ratio
This is the basic rule for capturing interesting, dynamic images. The frame is conditionally divided by two horizontal and two vertical lines into 9 parts. The visual centers are at the points of intersection. From these positions, viewers usually begin to get acquainted with the photo. At these points, as well as on the lines themselves, it is recommended to place the main subject of the photo. As a result, a more attractive, harmonious frame is obtained, as in this photo – the sand vortex column is located along the left vertical line.
For novice photographers, this rule may seem unnecessary. They place the main subject in the center of the frame, and the photos are less interesting and dynamic. To make sure of the importance of this rule, you can conduct an experiment: take two photos – the same shot, but in two versions: with the location of the main character in the center of the composition and the same photo – but with the hero in the recommended points. You will visually see how these frames will differ in perception.
In the example above, you can see that the left vertical line runs in the center of the face – the photo looks harmonious.
A rule similar in meaning is the “golden ratio”.
The aspect ratio here is: side B is 0.618 from side A. To simplify, the frame is divided into 8 parts horizontally and vertically. Here the dots are 3/8 and 5/8 from the edges. Photos that follow these rules look easy and interesting.
#4. Symmetry Rule
Symmetry is the easiest way to create balance in a composition. In nature, it is observed, for example, in frames with a mirror image, as in the photo above. Such compositions evoke feelings of stability, peace, and reliability. However, there is no complete symmetry in nature. For example, the face of a person in front, the figure of a person is not absolutely symmetrical. Strive for absolute symmetry in the frame is not worth it. Even in nature, nothing is perfect.
#5. Depth of Field
To highlight the main part, it must be in the sharpness range, and the background and other details must be blurred. A sense of depth in the composition is created. It does not matter at all whether the key figure is in the foreground or in the background. You can read more about depth of field in my another article.
#6. Free Space in The Frame
When creating a composition, you must leave enough space between the main component of the plot and the edge of the frame.
Such objects look good – it is more convenient to look at them without being distracted by secondary details, which makes the plot more dynamic.
#7. Shot Poise
The objects in the frame have so-called visual, or visual, weight. This means that each subject has its own “load”, and this must be taken into account in order to balance them in the frame. There are different techniques for this:
- with the help of gestures – if the model makes a movement with the right hand, then we balance it with a similar movement with the left hand or foot;
- with the help of objects – an object is placed in the other half – a counterweight. An example is in the image above;
- even with a glance, you can balance, giving him a free place: for an evil, furious look you need much more space than for a calm one;
- colors weigh differently: bright colors are heavier than dark colors.
If you successfully balance the weight of the objects in the photo, it will be harmonious and complete.
#8. Patterns and Texture
A pattern is a lot of repeating pieces. When building a composition, applying this rule can produce interesting effects. They work with texture with light – play with shadows – sometimes unexpectedly surprising results are obtained.
#9. Leading Lines
Lines are various – straight, curved, diagonal, lines of electric wires, roads, the horizon. The direction of the lines has a different emotional color: the horizontal lines are calmer than the vertical ones, the lines running diagonally from the left to the bottom bear tension, and the opposite ones are peaceful. It can also be items lined up in a row. Images with diagonal lines look more dynamic than horizontal ones.
Try to remove unnecessary clutter to better build the background for the main subject in the frame. When the image is open it is easy to see it.
#11. Odd Object Rule
It is believed that it is an odd number of objects that are more easily perceived with the eyes, and with an even number, the viewer cannot decide which one to stop at. But this rule can be violated, for example, if there are only two models.
These are geometrically similar shapes, colors, lines, benches in the park, sleepers on rails, lanterns along the road. A sufficient number of them – 3, if more, then the rhythm more actively affects the audience’s perception. The rhythm is interrupted when color, size, location, etc. change.
#13. Shooting Point
They choose with the calculation of the main idea of the composition: from a portrait to a large group of people; or considering the background: sea or birch grove; from a bird’s eye view or from the ground, at eye level.
There are many times when you can create a frame from surrounding objects. Objects that serve as frames in life will help you with this: window frames, street spans, the space between the columns, winter landscapes, where trees, their branches bend under the weight of snow in an arc, and many objects that can be found in the environment.
You may also like to read: Rules of Composition: 11 Best Compositional Rules in Photography
Conclusion & Experiment
You can always work according to the rules and in violation of the rules to implement your ideas, but in order to break it, it is recommended to study them first, because artistic photography is not only luck and talent, but also knowledge of the rules. Every photographer strives to take not just artistic pictures, but with a twist. Maybe you will get a world masterpiece.