Today in this article, I will tell you about the evolution of photography and it’s timeline with the illustrative images and as well the first photograph and cameras of the history. First the content list and then we’ll go straight to the topic.
- Hole in The Wall
- The First Photograph in The History of Mankind
- Mercury Fun
- World Photography Day
- Time of The First
- Color of The Nation
- Timeline of The Evolution Of Photographic Equipment
- First Selfie
- 19th Century Photoshop
- The Emergence of Brands
The history and invention of photography is full of ups and downs, incredible discoveries, envy and competition, and its evolutionary tree goes back to the 5th century BC.
Hole in The Wall
This story began with an ordinary hole. Light penetrated through the circular opening into the room, reflecting on the opposite wall. The object, through which the sunbeam passed, appeared on the wall in an inverted form and a mirror image. The effect was first described by the philosopher Aristotle.
The artists quickly figured out how to use a natural phenomenon for drawing from life. This method was used in his work by Leonardo da Vinci, Jan Vermeer, Rembrandt.
The technology of making a “shed” for painting has been known since the 10th century AD, but it was only in the 17th century that the first miniature camera obscura was created.
A lens was used to focus the light stream. Later, the camera received a retractable eye, similar to that used by Galileo in the first telescope.
If desired, such a device can be assembled at home in a couple of minutes from available tools.
The box (pinhole) is not yet a camera, since it cannot save an image. After all, the back wall is just a polished piece of wood or canvas.
To preserve the first images (photo), silver-plated copper plates were used. Later, photographers switched to glass, celluloid and digital media.
The First Photograph in The History of Mankind
In 1822, the inventor of the bicycle, Joseph Niepce, had some fun with chemicals, trying to find a way to preserve the image without having to paint it by hand. Together with him, in different parts of the world, several hundred artists and eccentric scientists were doing about the same. After a series of unsuccessful experiments, he managed to find a formula for the conservation of light.
Joseph Niepce smeared a thin layer of asphalt varnish (bitumen) on the surface of a copper plate covered with silver, inserted it into a camera obscura with a lens pointed at the laboratory window, and went for a walk for 8 hours. To develop the image, he used lavender oil mixed with kerosene.
The full title of the first photograph is “View from the window at Le Gras.” Let’s face it – so-so kind. But Niepce was pleased with the result and began to work on improving the lithography process.
In his advanced years, the old master shared his scientific research with a competitor, the artist Dagger, popular in France. The latter studied photography only through a monetary prism, longing for wealth and fame. By combining efforts, they managed to create a light show – the “magician” changed the angle of incidence of the light and another picture appeared under one picture. The invention received the name – diorama. Niepce, before dying, transfers all his developments to Dagger.
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A new round of the evolution of photographic equipment happened by chance. Dagger locked the plates in the closet for the night, and in the morning, he found a surprisingly clear image. The inventor tried all the reagents in the box. The best result was shown by mercury vapor heated to 40-50 degrees. He covered new plates with a mixture of mercury and silver – amalgam. The picture was both negative and positive at the same time, depending on which angle it was rotated at. Development took only 15 minutes instead of 8 hours.
The artist called his discovery “daguerreotype”, and amateurs came up with a more poetic name – “mirror with memory”.
World Photography Day
Having opened a workshop, Dagger began to rent cameras and offer services of “instant” photo development with a subscription of 1,000 francs. The French categorically disagreed with such a price list. The offended artist decided to sell the patent for 200,000 francs, but after a fire in the laboratory agreed to transfer the technology to the state for a pension of 6,000 francs a year.
France presented this invention to the world on January 7, 1839. The Day of Photography is celebrated on this date every year.
Time of The First
Immediately after the promulgation of the technology, many followers appeared, influencing the development of photography.
In 1844, William Talbot created the world’s first photo album by attaching objects to a plate. After printing the leaves of all the trees, he could get to, Talbot names his collection “The Pencil of Nature”.
In 1851, Scott Archer created a new method of wet printing – calotype, reducing the exposure of the daguerreotype by 50 times.
Fashion photographers still use this ancient method to create super-accurate and eerie images today. You just need to attach the glass to the photographic paper, and voila!
Calotypy is the creation of positives on photographic paper using colloidal solutions.
In 1851, journalist Roger Fenton went to cover the Russian-Crimean War, taking the world’s first photographs from the scene.
The photographer’s kit consisted of an obscura box and a laboratory van.
In 1853, thanks to Levy Hill, the right color photograph appears by means of heliochromia.
RGB – Red, Green, Blue
1861 – James Maxwell demonstrates a new way of obtaining color photographs – a three-color box. A rather simple idea found an elegant execution – three color filters for three lenses, when combining images, gave a color print.
The photo shows a plaid ribbon. The filter makes the fabric appear bulky.
In 1878, Edward Muybridge creates moving pictures – on one plate several images of a moving object that can be transferred to paper, create an album and browse through.
1871 the physician Richard Maddox perfects the calotype method by replacing the decks with gelatin. A glass substrate is used as a base, on which a silver-gelatin emulsion is applied. The revolutionary idea of Maddox was that the new carrier could be rolled up.
The first camera was a closed box with a film of 100 photos loaded inside.
For those who like to “click” in nature, this shaitan-machine is the same as the Maxim machine gun for the arquebusier of the 17th century. Weight – 500 grams, dimensions 230 in length and 150×15 millimeters in height and width.
After the shooting, the “box” with the contents was sent to the factory, the camera was reloaded with a new film, the photographs were developed and sent by parcel post together with the equipment to the customer.
In 1888, the first Kodak portable camera with replaceable rolls of film was introduced.
The Instant Freezer got its classic shape in April 1914. Since the 1930s, the lenses can be unscrewed. The cameras were designed specifically for Kodak’s 35mm narrow-format film, which is widely used in cinematography.
Color of the Nation
Proskudin-Gorsky is a Russian photographer who made unique color photographs of Tsarist Russia during 1904-1912. 1900 photographs were compiled and shown to the last Emperor Nicholas II.
Proskudin-Gorsky improved the photography technique of his teacher Adolf Mitte and created a world masterpiece. A complete archive of photos with a filter by area is available here.
Leonid Parfenov shot a wonderful film The Color of the Nation, revealing the personality and details of a unique work that has preserved the appearance of the Russian Empire. The photographs are now in the US Library of Congress.
Timeline of The Evolution of Photographic Equipment
- 1910 – Focal-plane shutter camera is introduced, allowing exposure selection.
- 1934 – Canon invents the focal-plane shutter camera.
- 1935 – The first Kodachrome color film.
- 1957 – Russell Kirsch’s first digital photograph.
- 1962 – Pentax fisheye lens with 180-degree field of view.
- 1968 – Leica creates a DSLR.
- 1972 – The legendary Polaroid SX70 is introduced – the first automatic camera with instant photo development.
- 1975 Stephen Sasson creates the first mass-produced digital camera, with a resolution of 0.01 megapixels.
- 1986 – The first disposable cardboard chamber.
- 1988 – Fuji’s camera with a memory card appears.
- 1999 – Nikon D1 – a serial DSLR at an affordable price.
- 2000 – First camera phone Sharp J-SH04.
Attention, Now A Bird Will Fly Out!
Blinding – this is how the unfortunate man who wished to immortalize his image for posterity could describe the impression from the first photos. And this is not that light flash from diodes on modern technology, but a harsh magnesium flash, from which the bunnies ran in front of my eyes for several hours.
The engine of progress has become the theater – the usual one, and the one on which the hostilities unfold. The monarchs were not averse to taking a daguerreotype with ballerinas’ legs into their bedroom, and military generals were not averse to receiving intelligence information in the form of printed cards.
The oldest selfie in history was noted by Robert Cornelius. A photograph of a loved one was taken in 1839. Unlike modern Instagram models, the poor man had to stand motionless for 15 minutes in the backyard of his parents’ store.
19th Century Photoshop
The first image with processing appeared in 1861. During the election campaign, Lincoln’s headquarters lacked “heroic photographs”, and the president himself, according to personal photographer Brady, looked so-so. “Photoshop” took Lincoln’s head from one plate, the surroundings of the estate of the then deceased President Thomas Hicks and the powerful body of John C. Calhoun. The forgery was discovered only in 1969.
The Emergence of Brands
- 1846 – Zeiss (Germany)
- 1913 – Leica (Germany)
- 1917 – Nikon (Japan)
- 1919 – Pentax (Japan)
- 1919 – Olympus (Japan)
- 1920 – Minolta, Konika – absorbed by Sony (Japan)
- 1934 – Fujifilm (Japan)
- 1935 – Canon (Japan)
The most expensive camera belongs to the brand of the Danish company Phase One, the equipment price is $50,000. This digital camera with a resolution of 150 megapixels is rented. The company was not included in the list of brands, since it does not produce serial models of equipment.
Photography is the art of taking the distant to loved ones.
The history of photographic technology is immense; for 150 years, mankind has tirelessly improved the technical process of preserving light prints. The cameras themselves have not changed much. Today, a digital back can be installed in a device from a hundred years ago and high-quality images can be obtained.